I was reading ‘Depression’ by Aaron T Beck, who was instrumental in pioneering the treatment of depression with the cognitive behavioral approach, and was surprised to find that Beck had classified depressive symptoms in four buckets which correspond to the ABCD system.
For example, like the Affect, Behavior, Cognition and Drive (motivation) ABCD model, he parses depressive symptoms as either emotional manifestations, cognitive manifestations, motivational manifestations and vegetative and physical manifestations. A complete list of symptoms is given below:
- Dejected mood
Negative feelings toward self
Reduction in gratification
Loss of emotional attachments
Loss of mirth response
- Low self-evaluation
Self-blame and self-criticism
Distortion of body image
- Paralysis of the will
Avoidance, escapist, and withdrawal wishes
Vegetative and Physical Manifestations
While the world has moved beyond these models to the DSM V (although DSM IV-TR ) is still widely used) and its good to be up to speed regarding the latest diagnostics criteria for depression, this historical classification of symptoms to me proves once more the power of the ABCD conceptualization.