Well, the answer is (c) i.e emergence of strong reciprocity is consistent with the observed behavior in the ultimatum game. The evolution of strong reciprocity requires that some people be willing to inflict punishment on the cheaters/free-loafers , even at considerable cost to themselves. This is exactly what people are doing by refusing low offers which they see as an injustices/ unfairness and their behavior of refusing the small offer harms the perpetrator of injustice, even though at cost to themselves.

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